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‘Statistics’ Magazine, issue 2/2022

Published at: 22.06.2022 - 12:10

The National Statistical Institute informs the users of statistical information that issue 2 for 2022 of ‘Statistics’ magazine is published on the NSI website. The publication is in Bulgarian with summaries in Bulgarian, English and Russian and includes the sections:

• Statistical surveys and analyzes
• Bulgarian statistics in three centuries
• Information, reviews, consultations

The rubric Statistical Surveys and Analyzes includes the following articles:

Productive restructuring of economic systems - a creative factor for their highly innovation and crowth - author Prof. Dr. Assen Kovachev

The article discusses the problem of the adequate measurement of efficiency in the development of economic systems - resource productivity. Their productive restructuring and the integrative effects derived from it form the dominant part of this efficiency. These effects are generated through recurrent product-resource interactions (purchase-sales) in the integrative solution of systems of nonlinear integral and differential vector equations. An original algorithm is applied to this solution: RPSD (Restructuring-Productivity-Sustainable Development).

Currently, there is a lack of an adequate mechanism for exploring a number of issues, which would allow to radically expand the applied scope of the systems approach. This mechanism should be based on the specific systematic perception of the world, but also on the specific logical-methodological and mathematical mechanism.

Keywords: integrative effects, development priorities, restructuring, decision algorithm, systems.

European Economic Accounts for the Environment - Expenditure on protection and restoration of the environment - authors Zorka Borisova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia, Dr. Eng. Gergana Cheshmedzhieva, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The accounts for the environment are a statistical system that combines economic and environmental information into a common framework for measuring the contribution of the environment to the economy and the impact of the economy on the environment. They organize environmental data from many areas using the same concepts and terminology as national accounts. In such meaning, they are satellite accounts to national accounts, through which various aspects of the economy can be analyzed and evaluated. In general, environmental accounts can be divided into physical (e.g. atmospheric emissions and material consumption) and monetary (e.g. environmental costs and taxes). One of the most observed groups of cash accounts for the environment is the costs of environmental protection and restoration. Statistics on these costs quantify the resources allocated to environmental protection by local economic units. This information supports the understanding of society's response to the ‘environmental deterioration’ challenge. The costs of protection and restoration of the environment include all activities and actions whose main purpose is to prevent, reduce and eliminate pollution, as well as any other deterioration and loss of environmental qualities. This includes measures taken to restore the environment after it has deteriorated due to the pressures of human activity. It also assesses the economy's financial commitment to the environment, assesses how environmental costs affect international competitiveness and assesses the application of 'the polluter pays' principle and the cost-effectiveness of environmental control mechanisms.

Methods for statistical compilation of data from complex sample surveys - author Tsveta  Tsonkova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

Statistical data combining can be considered as a tool to increase the efficiency of the use of available information by applying current and well-established statistical practice methods of data collection. In practice, the researcher is often faced with the choice to conduct his analysis on the basis of the limited data available or to conduct a new study to gather the information of interest to him. In most cases, the second choice is not possible mainly due to financial and organizational obstacles.

The purpose of this article is to present and describe the different methods for combining data from complex sample surveys that could be applied to develop models for combining statistical information from different social surveys, in order to present a more comprehensive picture of the socio-economic reality in Bulgaria.

The rubric The Bulgarian statistics in three centuries includes the following articles:

About modern and smart statistics … - author Dr. Bogdan Bogdanov, Deputy President of the National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The author of the article presents his vision for the development of government statistics in the near future. The key points tracing the path of the National Statistical Institute (NSI) in the immediate future are: the challenges facing statistics in the context of the global economy and according to the requirements of Eurostat; the processes in this state institution in recent years; significant challenges to official statistics; future steps towards modernization of Bulgarian statistics; the emphasis on the relations between Big Data, Smart Statistics, official statistics and the socio-economic environment; the impact of events outside and inside the NSI on the production of macro- and microeconomic indicators.

The red thread, soldering the text from the beginning to the end of the article, is formed by the emphasized constant striving, the necessary skills and the efforts made to ensure and guarantee the quality of the statistical information about the state and the society.

Creative biography of PhD in Economics Ivanka Dimova Saikova - author PhD Svetlana Saikova, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology at BAS

The article is dedicated to the creative biography of PhD in Economics Ivanka Saikova. Her professional life - more than 50 years of activity, is dedicated to the statistics. It focuses on her professional growth and achievements in teaching and research. Personal contributions to the development of statistical theory and methodology, as well as to teaching practice, are briefly noted.

Population census in Bulgaria in 1975 - author Sonia Zlatanova, National Statistical Institue, Sofia

The Decree № 60 of the Bureau of the Council of Ministers from 18 February 1972 regulates the conduct of the 13th population census in Bulgaria. A government commission has been set up to draw up a plan for organizing and conducting the census. According to item 2 of the implementation of the plan, a draft census program was prepared at the end of 1975. The project took into account both the experience of national statistics and the recommendations of the Conference of European Statisticians of the Economic Commission for Europe and the Standing Committee on Statistics of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.

The 13th census began at exactly 8:00 a.m. on December 2, 1975. This means that all enumerators and controllers are in their places and at the appointed time, the enumeration starts in all settlements in Bulgaria.

In the period 17 - 10 December 1975, the heads of the census at the municipal people's councils presented to the district census commissions the summary sheets for the population census, the housing stock, the representative observations and the completed census materials according to a schedule determined by the district census commission.

The rubric Information, reviews, consultations presents information on:

The National Statistical Institute about the National student competition on statistics ‘Bulgaria in the European union’, held during the period 26.01.2022 - 25.03.2022 by the Academy of economics ‘D. A. Tsenov’- Svishtov - authors Dr. Bogdan Bogdanov, Deputy President of the NSI, Dr. Galya Stateva, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

During the period January 26 to March 25, 2022, the Academy of Economics ‘D. A. Tsenov’ held a student competition in statistics entitled ‘Bulgaria in the European Union’. A remarkable initiative, which reflected the place of our country in Europe through the eyes of young people who accepted the challenge to participate in the competition with their works. With this competition, the scientists from the academy emphasize something very important - the cultivation of statistical thinking among the country's youth.

‘Bulgaria - 15 years in the European union - statistical dimensions of changes’ - National statistics competition for students, held by ‘D. A. Tsenov’ Business academy - author Assoc. Prof. Dr. Plamen Petkov, Business Academy ‘D. A. Tsenov’ - Svishtov

During the period 26.01.2022 - 25.03.2022, on the initiative of the Department of ‘Statistics and Applied Mathematics’ at the ‘Dimitar A. Tsenov’ Business academy - Svishtov, for the second consecutive time the National Statistics Competition for students ‘Bulgaria in the European Union’  was organized. This year the participants in the competition presented their works as an essay on the topic ‘Bulgaria - 15 years in the European Union - statistical dimensions of changes’. Fifteen teams of 25 students from 11 schools in the country took part in the competition. A competent jury composed of lecturers in the Department of ‘Statistics and Applied Mathematics’ and representatives of the practice from the National Statistical Institute, nominated three works, and the department provided a special award.

The impact of Bulgaria's accession to the European Union on the labour market - authors Betina Borisova, Hristiana Stefanova, Tsvetelina Bogdanova, team of Financial and Economic Vocational High School ‘Vasil Levski’, Montana, 11a

Bulgaria's accession to the European Union in 2007 led to changes in the political, cultural, social and economic life of Bulgarians. The labour market is at the heart of the economy and the political and social life of society. In this statistical essay, we present the impact of Bulgaria's accession to the European Union on the labour market. To this end, we consider some of the main factors that have the greatest impact on the labour market. Its dynamics are presented through indicators for the population, able-bodied, unemployed and employed persons, as well as employment and unemployment rates. The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on it are analyzed by comparing the measures and unemployment rates in Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. From all the considered data, we can conclude that the European Union has a favourable effect on the Bulgarian labour market.

‘Bulgaria - 15 years in EU - statistical dimension of changes’ - authors Georgi Stoyanov, Tsvetomira Georgieva, team of the Professional High School of Economics ‘Dr. Ivan Bogorov’ - Varna, XId grade

The main reasons why the European Union is successful and different from other international organizations are rooted in its values and fundamental principles. By applying the ‘Unity makes strength’ motto, all EU Member States receive equal opportunity to work together for a better future, and by giving up a small part of their national sovereignty, each country receives in return something much more important - to develop, prosper, move forward with others. This study traces the trends in the development of key macroeconomic indicators for Bulgaria after its accession to the European Union. The economy of Bulgaria as a whole, the gross domestic product in current and comparable prices at purchasing power parity, the foreign trade balance, the consumption of the population by main directions, the labour market in the country by regional areas, poverty and income distribution, and some main aspects of demographic processes. From all presented results, it can be concluded that the membership of Bulgaria in the European Union realizes inevitable benefits and advantages.

‘Bulgaria - 15 years in EU - statistical dimensions of change’ - authors Terin Elver, Yoanna Miteva, students from XII grade, PSHE ‘Dimitar Hadjivasilev’ - Svishtov, won third place in the competition.
The purpose of this study is to outline a possible starting point for the analysis of the economic effects of Bulgaria's membership in the EU and to make some observations on this analysis. The work extends in two aspects. The first is related to the dynamics of economic processes in the country through a comparative analysis of the specifics before and after EU accession, and the second is a comparison of the Bulgarian economy with the economies of countries similar to it but not EU members, which are in different relations with the European union. It analyzes: the economic impact of the EU in Bulgaria, the mobility of its citizens resulting from the membership of the state, the EU policy and quality of life in Bulgaria, the demographic processes before and after Bulgaria's accession to the EU and the 'Erasmus +' Student Exchange Program for study and internship abroad. The result of the analyzed information establishes that our country still faces the need for reforms of key institutions and areas, as well as the need to build administrative capacity that would allow the use of European membership to get even more efficient for the benefit of Bulgarian citizens. The data show that Bulgaria is interested in deepening cooperation with European institutions in all areas.

E-commerce in Bulgaria and the European Union - authors Vesko Vassilev, Magdalena Mineva, Gabriel Georgiev, students, 12th grade from PGT 'Pencho Semov' - Svishtov, with the Special Prize of the Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics.

Digital technologies are rapidly entering and finding applications in all areas of life, leading to changes in the business environment and society as a whole. E-commerce is one of the manifestations of digital technologies in the economy. The current analysis examines the dynamics of the indicators 'Household access to the Internet', 'Enterprises with Internet access', 'Persons who bought goods and services on the Internet for personal purposes in the last 12 months', 'Enterprises that sell goods and Internet services' and 'Index of the penetration of digital technologies in the economy and society'. It has been determined that the role of e-commerce is growing with the digitalization of the economy and more and more businesses and consumers are participating in it. At the same time, Bulgaria ranks last in e-commerce in the European Union.