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‘Statistics’ Magazine, issue 4/2021

Published at: 08.11.2021 - 16:20

The National Statistical Institute informs users of statistical information that Issue 4/2021 of ‘Statistics’ Magazine is published on the NSI’s website. The issue is in Bulgarian language with summaries in Bulgarian, English and Russian and includes sections as follows:

• Development of statistical theory and practice
• Statistical surveys and analysis
• Information, reviews, consultations

The section Development of statistical theory and practice includes the articles:

  • Production of experimental statistics on the characteristics of enterprises with internet data - authors Kostadin Georgiev, National Statistical Institute - Sofia, Dr. Galya Stateva, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

With each passing year, online business is becoming even more important to the economy, and with the global pandemic, COVID it is more important than ever. The Work Package C (WPC) for online based enterprise characteristics (OBEC) within the framework of the European project ESSnet on Big data II is related to the understanding of the online economic and business activity of enterprises from the point of view of national statistics.

A key result of the work is the improvement of the quality of the statistical business register in terms of characteristics for the online presence of nationally registered companies such as the availability of websites, e-commerce or social media accounts. Within the WPC, the methodology of the previous ESSnet on Big data I project was summarized and extended for use in each ESS country, taking into account the diversity needed to maintain different use-cases in statistical practice.

The National Statistical Institute had the honour and privilege to be a leading institution and an active partner in the implementation of activities under work package C.

This article aims to acquaint the reader with the results achieved on the opportunities and challenges for the production of experimental statistics from ‘big data’ sources on the online characteristics of enterprises at European and national level.

Keywords: online based enterprise characteristics, experimental statistics, big data, statistical Business Register, National Statistical Institute

  • Methods and concepts for functional geographical zoning for statistical purposes - author Valeria Angelova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The aim of this study is to analyze the practical advantages of various statistical approaches to functional geographical zoning based on data from daily business trips and to summarize the methods in an accessible way using a number of examples.

The emphasis is on functional urban areas and labor market areas. The author presents a number of challenges related to the definition and use of these functional areas for statistical and analytical purposes, and possible outlines for the future, taking into account changes in labor mobility patterns and labor market conditions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: functional urban areas; labor market areas; daily business trips; work force; economic integration; territorial typologies; grid

The section Statistical Surveys and Analysis includes the following articles:

  • Main statistical dimensions for the socio-economic development of Bulgaria after the accession to the European Union - author Dr. Bogdan Bogdanov, Deputy President of the National Statistical Institute - Sofia

This article is intended to acquaint the reader with the main measures of socio-economic development after Bulgaria's accession to the European Union (EU). More than a decade has passed since the country joined the EU. The past path of positive development is there. The market economy dominates. Series of issues remain about the factors and reasons shaping the sustainability of economic development. The question is whether our country meets the conditions for sustainable economic development?

The article analyzes the main macro and microeconomic indicators characterizing the development of Bulgaria during the last ten years. Thoughts of the world-famous economist Joseph Stiglitz are quoted. Tables with comparative data on main economic indicators for the EU countries are presented. The presented statements and conclusions do not exhaust this important and large-scale topic, but can be a good start for comment and continuation of the material presented in the ‘Statistics’ magazine.

  • What are the real demographic problems of Bulgaria? - authors Prof. Marta Sugareva, Paisii Hilendarski University of Plovdiv, and Assoc. Prof. Mariana Murgova, UNWE - Sofia

The article aims to dispel some unfounded fears spreading in the public space in connection with the demographic development of Bulgaria. The tendencies of the main demographic processes in Bulgaria during the last decades (after 1960) - birth rate, mortality, natural increase and related elements of the demographic development are considered, compared with the respective processes in other European countries. A total of six countries, including Bulgaria, were selected using the same indicators of the processes in question. The information is also harmonized - from the Eurostat database in order to avoid misunderstandings and inconsistencies caused by reasons related to the origin of the data. The conclusions are in the field of population policy and demographic research in our country.

  • The EU Cohesion Policy’s impact on the Regional Development of the Republic of Bulgaria - author and Prof. Veselin Boyadzhiev, Sofia University ‘St. Kliment Ohridski’, and Dr. Vasil Zarkov, BACC AD - Sofia 

Bulgaria is entering its third programming period of implementation of the European Union’s Cohesion Policy. During the new programming period 2021 - 2027, our country will receive cohesion policy’s investment funds amounting to 9 billion euros, which is an increase compared to 8.6 billion received during the previous period. Great opportunities often hide the problems they bring though - it is not by accident that the Chinese hieroglyph for opportunity also means risk. The significant amount of these funds instigates a lot of questions, among which: How effectively has cohesion policy been used as a tool to overcome socio-economic disparities and do Bulgarian regions really manage to converge? Two programming periods have already passed (2007 - 2013 and 2014 - 2020) since Bulgaria became a full member of the EU. This is a time long enough to make relatively objective assessments of the results and impact of the cohesion policy on the regional development of the country - one of the least developed countries in the Union, both at national and regional level.

JEL: R580

  • Statistics and Environmental Protection - author Gergana Cheshmedzhieva, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The European Union's environment and climate policies aim to protect the environment and minimize risks to climate, human health and biodiversity. The European Green Deal and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are two outstanding examples for that. The European Green Deal aims to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent with transformation program in economy in regards to clean energy, sustainable industry, the circular economy, sustainable mobility and more. The UN Sustainable Development Agenda till 2030 enables the EU's own strategic orientation to build a sustainable future. Environmental action programs are based on strategic initiatives, including resource efficiency, biodiversity conservation and a low-carbon economy.

Eurostat provides environmental statistics, accounts and indicators to support the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies, strategies and initiatives of the European Union for the environment.

JEL classification

Q56 „Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth“
(Source: JEL Classification System,  

The section Information, reviews, consultations presents the following information:

  • Census of civil servants in Bulgaria in 1896, 1904 and 1911 - author Sonya Zlatanova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

Organized government statistics in Bulgaria can be discussed only at the end of the 19th century. This is a period in which the young Bulgarian state is intensively building its governance apparatus according to models borrowed from the developed European countries.

On March 1, 1896, the official state statistical body of Bulgaria - the Statistical Bureau, conducted the first census of government officials and employees in the Bulgarian principality.

The second census of government officials and employees in Bulgaria was conducted by the Directorate of Statistics on June 1, 1904, exactly eight years after their first census.

On April 1, 1911 was held the third census, which was undertaken by the General Directorate of Statistics by decision of the Supreme Statistical Council and on the request of the Parliamentary Committee on the Staffs of Officials, elected by the XIV Ordinary National Assembly.

The publications with the results of the census of civil officials and employees are bilingual - in Bulgarian and in French, and are available in the library of the National Statistical Institute.

Annual subscription (4 issues): EUR 22
Price per issue 4/2021: EUR 7
The publication can be purchased at:

• Multi-Domain Statistics and User Services Directorate, NSI,
‘P. Volov’ № 2 Str., Sofia 1038.
• The Regional statistical offices of the NSI.
Payment is made:
1. Cash - in the Multi-Domain Statistics and User Services Directorate, NSI,
‘P. Volov’ № 2 Str., Sofia 1038.
2. Bank transfer
NSI bank account:
IBAN: BG84 BNBG 9661 3000 1190 01