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‘Statistics’ Magazine, issue 3/2020

Published at: 18.09.2020 - 11:40
The National Statistical Institute informs users of statistical information that Issue 3/2020 of ‘Statistics’ Magazine is published on the NSI’s website. The issue is in Bulgarian language with summaries in Bulgarian, English and Russian and includes sections as follows:
  • Development of the statistical theory and practice
  • Statistical surveys and analysis
  • The Bulgarian statistics in three centuries
  • Information, reviews, consultations

The section Development of the statistical theory and practice includes the articles:

  • Aspects of socio-economic theory and practice for measurement and analysis of poverty in society - author Dr. Bogdan Bogdanov, Deputy President of the National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The article consistently addresses certain issues linking the phenomenon of "poverty" with: the possibilities for analysis through a series of parameters (characteristics); the main methods (approaches) for measurement; other social phenomena and processes in the public space.

Along with that, aspects of the impact of poverty on the development of human society are presented. The data show that the richest countries are the ones that manage to limit the processes of impoverishment and maintain the sustainable development of their national economy, getting ahead of other countries. Thoughts of famous economists and political scientists on the nature of the phenomenon of ‘poverty’ are quoted and their vision of changes and policies in controlling negative processes and phenomena is presented.

In general, poverty is a phenomenon that generates social tensions nationally and internationally. The aim of all policies in the social field is to reduce poverty and bring it to the point where social tensions will not have destructive and eroding properties in relation to the development of the individual society.

The article ends with a thought that complements, and perhaps repeats, the events described as a metaphorical expression (a quote from a book by the famous writer Andrew Davidson in recent years), which provokes further reflection on the topic: ‘The whole history of mankind is in fact the attempts of one man to take away from another something that most often does not belong to either of them.’

  • Development of Statistical Analysis of remote observations (outliers) from the End of the WWI untill the mid-80s of the XX century - author Assoc. Prof. Lyubomir Ivanov, Academy of Economics ‘D. A. Tsenov’ - Svishtov

In the paper we consider the historical development of the methods for statistical analysis of the outlying observation (aka outliers), covering the period from the end of the First World War till the middle of the 80s years of the XX century. During that timeframe in the analysis are formed two main directions – robust evaluation methods and outlier detection. The first one encompasses the development of methods for accurate estimation even in the presence of the extreme values in the data, while the second one overawes the creation of statistical tests that can identify both the number and location of the outliers. The distinction between the two tracks led to their gradual separation into completely independent fields of the statistical analysis. In the same time with the development of the methods for robust estimation and detection of outliers, the researchers discovered many new problem areas – outlier's dimensions, masking, time series outliers; as well as new possibilities to enrich the analysis by application of graphical methods and automation of analytic procedures.

JEL: C19, C49

Key words: remote observations, extreme observations, sustainable assessment methods, identification

The section Statistical surveys and analysis includes the article:

  • Definition of the poverty line - methodological feature – author Prof. Vasil Tsanov,  Institute for Economic Research at BAS - Sofia 

The article examines the methodological differences in defining the poverty line. The positive and negative features of the three main approaches applied in world practice (absolute, relative and subjective) are being presented. The qualities and practical possibilities of the main methods for determining the poverty line are analysed. Evaluations show that methods based on statistical information have advantages over methods based on expert evaluation. The reliability and realism of the methods largely depend on the quality of the statistical information. The article thoroughly examines the qualities of the new methodology for determining the official poverty line in Bulgaria.

The section The Bulgarian Statistics in Three Centuries includes the following articles:

  • Academician Evgeni Mateev - author  Dr. Bogdan Bogdanov, Deputy President of the National Statistical Institute - Sofia        

The biographical essay about academician Evgeni Mateev is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of his birth. He was born on April 1, 1920 in the town of Targovishte. The essay briefly presents moments from the life of this remarkable man. His extremely important role as Chairman of the Central Statistical Office in the period from 1953 to 1961 is noted. Emphasis is placed on his significant thoughts on planning and its connection with the development of democracy in Bulgaria.

Academician Evgeni Mateev belongs to the small community of explorers and scientists who can see and foresee, producing messages to the future generations.

  • South Dobrudja - in the footsteps of the time until the treaty of Bucharest 1913 - author Zdravka Bobeva, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

In 1932, the ‘Statistics’ magazine, as a body of the General Directorate of Statistics, published an extensive socio-economic etude of South Dobrudja, which reflected all the indicators of the district for the period until 1913, when it was handed over to Romania. The wealth of information contained in this etude honours Bulgarian statisticians with its comprehensiveness, punctuality, objectivity and accessibility. In 2020, when the statistics in Bulgaria celebrates its 140th anniversary, it looks upon the achievements of its ancestors and provides today's generations with the opportunity to be acquainted with their professionalism. The ‘Statistics’ magazine published this retrospective of the etude for South Dobrudja on the 80th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Craiova, which was commemorated on September 7, 2020.

In the first decades of the XXI Century, the European Union and Bulgaria, as part of it, presented the continent with a peaceful historical time. Time in which it is possible to build up and upgrade. A time for statistics to measure progress, instead of counting losses in material and human strength. That is why, with a full of hope gaze into the future, the 140-year-old Bulgarian statistics turns the pages of the past only to remind of its present and future professionalism.

  • Population and housing census in the Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1926 and 1934 - author Sonya Zlatanova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The eighth population census commenced on December 31, 1926. It was carried out on the appointed day in all 2 650 administrative municipalities, consisting of 93 cities, 4 265 villages and 1 391 other settlements, or a total of 5 749 settlements. There were 36 347 agent-enumerators, of which 9 687 in the cities and 26 660 in the villages. Agent supervisors were  5 013 - 1 232 in urban areas and 3 781 in villages. On the average, one agent enumerator was responsible for 131 persons, 117 in the cities, and 163 in the villages.

The ninth population census commenced on December 31, 1934. It was carried out simultaneously in 921 administrative municipalities, consisting of 97 cities, 4 260 villages and 1 395 settlements or a total of 5 752 settlements. There were 45 112 agent enumerators, of which 12 543 in the cities and 32 569 in the villages. Agent-controllers were 6 151 of which  1 581 in towns and 4 570 in villages. One agent-enumerator counted an average of 135 persons, 104 in the cities and 147in the villages.    

For the proper course of the censuses and for the active and responsible participation of the population in this nationwide event, an advertising campaign was carried out, which aimed to achieve higher activity and lifting the spirits of Bulgarian population. The advertising materials were disseminated in thousands of copies in all parts of the Kingdom.

Editions of the enumeration of the population and housing censuses in 1926 and 1934 have been digitized and are available of free access in the digital library of the NSI. Digital collections contain 2 691 pages of statistical information.

The section Information, reviews, consultations presents the following information:

  • 140 years of foreign trade statistics of Bulgaria - author Sonya Zlatanova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia   

2020 marks the 140th anniversary of the establishment of the statistical institution in our country, as well as the creation of foreign trade statistics.

Foreign trade is entirely related to customs operations, both in terms of imports and exports, which is why the basis of foreign trade statistics are the documents of customs offices.

Foreign trade statistics is a valuable source of information on the volumes and scales of trade operations in different historical periods. Consumers can follow the dynamics of imports, exports, transit and antreposit for the period, make comparisons in the classifications and values of goods, as well as establish their place of origin and destination.

The collection ‘Statistics of Foreign Trade of Bulgaria’ contains over 52 000 digital pages and provides an opportunity to track the development of Bulgaria's foreign trade, as well as changes and improvements in the methods and technologies of collecting, processing and presenting statistical information over 140 years history of Bulgarian state statistics. 

The digital library of the National Statistical Institute provides free online access to the complete collection ‘Statistics of Foreign Trade of Bulgaria’ for the period 1880 - 2009.

The collection is available at:
Annual subscription (4 issues): EUR 22
Price per issue 3/2020: EUR 7
The publication can be purchased at:
• Multi-Domain Statistics and User Services Directorate, NSI,
‘P. Volov’ № 2 Str., Sofia 1038.
• The Regional statistical offices of the NSI.
Payment is made:
1. Cash - in the Multi-Domain Statistics and User Services Directorate, NSI,
‘P. Volov’ № 2 Str., Sofia 1038.
2. Bank transfer
NSI bank account:
IBAN: BG84 BNBG 9661 3000 1190 01