Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS4)
National Statistical Institute
|Contact organisation unit|
'Education and Culture Statistics' Department
|Contact person function|
Head of department
|Contact mail address|
2, P. Volov Str.; 1038 Sofia, Bulgaria
|Contact email address|
|Contact phone number|
+359 2 9857 469
|Contact fax number|
The Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS) collects information on enterprises’ investment in the continuing vocational training of their staff. Continuing vocational training (CVT) refers to education or training measures or activities which are financed in total or at least partly by the enterprise (directly or indirectly). Part financing could include the use of work-time for the training activity as well as financing of training equipment.
Information available from the CVTS is grouped around the following topics:
- Training/non-training enterprises
- Participation in continuing vocational training
- Planning and assessment of continuing vocational training
- Costs of continuing vocational training courses
- Time spent on continuing vocational training courses
For further information see CVTS implementation manuals (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/education-and-training/methodology).
Classification of economic activities (NACE): NACE Rev. 1.1 up to 2005 and NACE Rev. 2 as from 2010.
CVTS covers enterprises with 10 or more employees belonging to the following sectors:
· For CVTS 4 (2010) and 5 (2015): to the NACE 2008 categories B, C (10-12, 13-15, 17-18, 19-23, 24-25, 26-28 and 33, 29-30, 16+31-32), D-E, F, G(45, 46, 47), I, H, J, K(64,65), K(66), L+M+N+R+S.
· For CVTS 2 (2000) and 3 (2005): to the NACE 2003 categories C, D (15-16, 17-19, 21-22, 23-26, 27-28, 29-33, 34-35, 20+36+37), E, F, G (50, 51, 52), H, I (60-63, 64), J (65-66, 67), K+O.
|Statistical concepts and definitions|
Continuing vocational training (CVT) are training measures or activities which have as their primary objectives the acquisition of new competences or the development and improvement of existing ones and which must be financed at least partly by the enterprises for their persons employed who either have a working contract or who benefit directly from their work for the enterprise such as unpaid family workers and casual workers. Persons employed holding an apprenticeship or training contract should not be taken into consideration for CVT. The training measures or activities must be planned in advance and must be organised or supported with the special goal of learning. Random learning and initial vocational training (IVT) are explicitly excluded. CVT measures and activities cover both CVT courses and other forms of CVT.
CVT courses are typically clearly separated from the active workplace (learning takes place in locations specially assigned for learning like a class room or training centre). They show a high degree of organisation (time, space and content) by a trainer or a training institution. The content is designed for a group of learners (e.g. a curriculum exists). Two distinct types of CVT courses are identified: internal and external CVT courses.
Other forms of CVT are typically connected to the active work and the active workplace, but they can also include participation (instruction) in conferences, trade fairs etc. for the purpose of learning. These other forms of CVT are often characterised by a degree of self-organisation (time, space and content) by the individual learner or by a group of learners. The content is often tailored according to the learners’ individual needs in the workplace. The following types of other forms of CVT are identified:
- planned training through guided-on-the-job training;
- planned training through job rotation, exchanges, secondments or study visits;
- planned training through participation (instruction received) in conferences, workshops, trade fairs and lectures;
- planned training through participation in learning or quality circles;
- planned training through self-directed learning/e-learning.
Training enterprises are enterprises that provided CVT courses or other forms of CVT for their persons employed during the reference year.
A participant in CVT courses is a person who has taken part in one or more CVT courses during the reference year. Each person should be counted only once, irrespective of the number of CVT courses he or she has participated in. E.g. if a person employed has participated in two externally managed courses and one internally managed course, he or she should be counted as one participant.
The costs of CVT courses cover direct costs, participants’ labour costs and the balance of contributions (net contribution) to and receipts from training funds.
Direct course costs:
- fees and payments for CVT courses;
- travel and subsistence payments related to CVT courses;
- the labour costs of internal trainers for CVT courses (direct and indirect costs);
- the costs for training centres, training rooms and teaching materials.
Participants’ labour costs (personal absence costs) refer to the labour costs of participants for CVT courses that take place during paid working time.
Time spent on CVT courses refers to paid working time (in hours) spent on CVT courses, i.e. the time that all participants have spent in total during the reference year.
Since 2005, the CVTS contains some variables on initial vocational training (IVT). IVT within enterprises is defined as a formal education programme (or a component of it) where working time alternates between periods of practical training (workplace) and general/theoretical education (educational institution/training centre). The definition of IVT differs between CVTS waves, for details see the implementation manuals for each wave, available in CIRCABC.
The number of persons employed is defined as the total number of persons who work in the observation unit excluding persons employed holding an apprenticeship or training contract (i.e. the definition of persons employed in CVTS deviates from the one used for structural business statistics as regards the treatment of persons employed holding an apprenticeship or training contract).
For additional definitions used in CVTS and further information see the CVTS implementation manuals available in CIRCABC.
Enterprises with 10 or more persons employed belonging to certain NACE categories.
Whole country (full territorial coverage).
1999, 2005, 2010, 2015
CVTS data are produced by the National Statistical Institute. The sampling frame used is the National Statistical Business Register (SBR), which is considered of good quality (coverage, regular updates, etc.). The sample is stratified by NACE and size classes; sampling requirements for CVTS are set in the relevant legislation documents. Survey participation for the enterprises was mandatory.
|Frequency of data collection|
Every 5 years.
CVTS was a stand-alone survey.
CVTS 4: Face-to-face (PAPI) and postal.
CVTS 5: Self-administered interview - paper assisted (PAPI, includes electronically submitted PDF version of the questionnaire) and Self-administered interview - computer assisted (CAWI with interactive online questionnaire).
Pilot test of the CVTS questionnaires was partly implemented.
The data tools framework (application for data entry) was designed with additional controls and filters. There were added also extra checking rules by comparing the entered information between different related questions in order to confront possible inconsistent answers. Finally the data checking tool (EDIT) provided by Eurostat had been used for the data set checks. No major errors detected.
A set of quality criteria have been set up within the CVTS legislation (see Legal acts and other agreements).
Statistics based on the CVTS are considered to be of satisfactory quality thanks to a harmonised production process (see Legal acts and other agreements). The CVTS is a sample survey and thus the results are subject to the usual statistical errors of measurement. Some issues arise from non-response.
Data are used by:
Commission (DGs, Secretariat General), Council, European Parliament, other European Agencies
Ministry of Education and science, Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, Other Ministries, NSIs, etc.
Bulgarian academy of science
OECD, UN, etc.
Not surveyed yet.
Dataset covers all NACE sectors, enterprise size groups and variables as requested in the gentlemen’s agreement (CVTS 2) and in legislation (CVTS 3, 4 and 5) (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/education-and-training/legislation).
|Data completeness - rate|
|Accuracy and reliability|
The overall accuracy is considered as very good, significant variations had not been observed (see Sampling errors - indicators).
Business register as of 31.12.2014 was used as a sampling frame. The sample was stratified by NACE Rev.2 (20 categories: B, C10-C12 ,C13-C15 ,C17-C18 ,C19-C23 ,C24-C25, C26-C28 and C33, C29-C30, C16+C31-32, D-E, F, G(45), G(46), G(47), I, H, J, K(64,65), K(66), L+M+N+R+S) and 3 size category (based on the number of employed). All sampling procedures were in accordance to the Commission Regulation No 1153/2014.
The current business register data as of 31 December 2015 for the total population was used for weighting and adjustment of the results.
The data obtained by the survey was post-stratified. The total number of poststrata was 140 (20 NACE categories used for sampling and 7 size groups (based on the number of employed).
Calculation of the coefficients of variation
All calculations of the standard errors and coeficients of variation were performed by SPSS (PASW) software, Complex Sample Analysis Module.
More information about CVTS 4's sampling method and errors could be found on CIRCABC.
|Sampling errors - indicators|
|Standard error for main results (Cont.)||Ratio of the total number of participants in CVT courses to the total number of persons employed||Ratio of the total number of participants in CVT courses to the total number of persons employed in enterprises that provided CVT.||Total costs of CVT courses.||Total number of enterprises providing IVT||Total number of participants in IVT||Ratio of the total number of enterprises providing IVT to the total number of enterprises|
|Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation|
|Nace B, C, D, E||0.199||0.12333||0.437||0.10393||17516849||0.22720||762||0.09137||12790||0.22163||0.084||0.09000|
|Nace G, H, I||0.166||0.19953||0.470||0.12309||11808142||0.14916||680||0.09878||11731||0.37432||0.052||0.09876|
|Nace J, K||0.557||0.11582||0.691||0.08621||27772969||0.31091||137||0.21865||4031||0.47464||0.104||0.21977|
|Nace L, M, N, R, S||0.230||0.17830||0.551||0.08311||7099167||0.22333||200||0.19669||902||0.26580||0.047||0.19666|
| ||Ratio of the total number of participants in CVT courses to the total number of persons employed||Ratio of the total number of participants in CVT courses to the total number of persons employed in enterprises that provided CVT courses||Total costs of CVT courses||Total number of enterprises providing IVT||Ratio of the total number of enterprises providing IVT to the total number of enterprises|
|Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation||Estimated value||Coefficient of variation|
|NACE 17 ||0.424||0.056||0.517||0.043||11374875.000||0.155||159.470||0.190||0.149||0.191|
For survey 2010 response rate is 88.2%.
For survey 2015 response rate is 93.7%.
For more detailed information see ‘Coverage error’ section.
| ||CVTS 4||CVTS 5|
|Number of enterprises in the sampling frame|
(The number of enterprises in the sampling frame according to the Business register)
|Gross sample size|
(The number of enterprises initially selected from the sampling frame)
|Net Sample size|
(The number of enterprises finally selected)
|Over-coverage - rate|
CVTS 4: 17.9% of enterprises.
CVTS 5: 7.1% of enterprises.
|Common units - proportion|
Serious issues with the measurement errors were not found.
|Non response error|
Unit non-response CVTS 4: 504 enterprises.
Unit non-response CVTS 5: 267 enterprises.
|Unit non-response - rate|
|Divisions of non-response into categories|
| ||CVTS 4||CVTS 5|
|Non response rate (%)||11.79||6.33|
|Inability to respond (%)||-||0.09|
|Rejected interviews (%)||0.23||0.64|
|Item non-response - rate|
CVTS 4: no items with non-response more than 10%.
CVTS 5: item non-response rate for C7sub - 12.05%.
No major processing errors discovered.
|Imputation - rate|
CVTS 4: Average imputaion rate - 0.42%.
CVTS 5: Average imputation rate - 12.05%
|Model assumption error|
Not applicable. The sampling design effect was included into calculated sampling errors.
Not applicable (no seasonal adjustments).
|Data revision - policy|
In accordance to the interior (for the NSI) rules for data dissemination.
|Data revision - practice|
In accordance to the interior (for the NSI) rules for data dissemination.
|Data revision - average size|
|Timeliness and punctuality|
Data delivery to Eurostat
|2015||06-09/2016||10/2016 - 06/2017||06/2017|
|Time lag - first results|
The first CVTS 5 results were disseminated at the NSI’s website at 30.06.2017.
|Time lag - final results|
To be announced (CVTS 5 results).
All deliverables were sent on time.
|Punctuality - delivery and publication|
Data is provided and published on exact date.
|Coherence and comparability|
|Comparability - geographical|
Deviations from CVTS 4 and 5 concepts and definitions
CVTS 4 and 5 concepts and definitions
No deviations in concepts and definitions stipulated in Commission Regulation.
CVTS 4 and 5 variables
In variables B2 (B2a, B2b … etc.) the relative shares were replaced with absolute values, which were later transformed into percentages. No impact on the coherence.
There was an alternative for the enterprises to describe their economic activity instead of filling in the NACE code for A1. No impact on the coherence.
CVTS 4 and 5 questionnaire
No deviations from the European standard questionnaire.
|Asymmetry for mirror flows statistics - coefficient|
Not applicable (no flows).
|Comparability - over time|
Partially comparable due to the changes of the general methodology and the economic activities of the surveyed enterprises. Modifications have actually been made in view of improving the overall quality of CVTS and are not considered to have a serious impact on the comparability.
CVTS 3 (2005)
CVTS 4 (2010)
CVTS 5 (2015)
Enterprises providing training - % of all enterprises
Enterprises providing CVT courses - % of all enterprises
Participants in CVT courses - % of persons employed in all enterprises
Participants in CVT courses - % of persons employed in enterprises providing CVT courses
Cost of CVT courses - cost per person employed in all enterprises
Cost of CVT courses - cost per person employed in enterprises providing CVT courses
Enterprises employing IVT participants - % of all enterprises
|Length of comparable time series|
|Coherence - cross domain|
CVTS data has been compared with Structural Business Statistics data with regard to number of persons employed. Full comparability is not possible due to differences in methodology.
|Coherence - sub annual and annual statistics|
|Coherence - National Accounts|
|Coherence - internal|
CVTS results for a given reference year are based on the same microdata and results are calculated using the same estimation methods, therefore the data are internally coherent.
|Accessibility and clarity|
Bulgarian national publications had been issued for previous waves before CVTS 4 and are available in BNSI library.
Data on Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS) are available to all users on the NSI's website under the heading Education and Lifelong Learning: http://www.nsi.bg/en/node/4923 and on Informational System "Infostat": https://infostat.nsi.bg/infostat/pages/module.jsf?x_2=167
|Data tables - consultations|
In accordance to the interior (for the NSI) Rules for Provision of Anonymised Individual Data for Scientific and Research Purposes (http://www.nsi.bg/en/node/12152/).
Information services by order in accordance to the Rules for Dissemination of Statistical Products and Services (http://www.nsi.bg/en/node/12408/).
|Metadata - consultations|
|Documentation on methodology|
For each wave of the CVTS a detailed implementation manual is available which contains definitions and additional methodological explanations, a European standard questionnaire and the code book.
The implementation manuals are available in CIRCABC.
|Metadata completeness – rate|
CVTS 3: the EU quality report is available in CIRCABC.
CVTS 4: the EU quality report as well as national quality reports are available in CIRCABC.
CVTS 5: to be announced.
|Cost and burden|
Staff involved in administering survey:
4 experts from Department ‘Education and Culture statistics’ – responsible for survey organization, implementation of methodology, preparation of the national questionnaire, sampling, data processing, preparation of EU dataset and quality report, data dissemination;
1 expert from Department ‘Information and Application Software’ – responsible for preparation of informatics tool.
|Confidentiality - policy|
· Law on Statistics;
· Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.
|Confidentiality – data treatment|
Data are disseminated in aggregated form. Due to confidentiality issues data are presented for groups of NACE and enterprise size classes. Estimates are systematically based on at least three enterprises; where necessary, additional restrictions are applied.