‘Statistics’ Magazine, Issue 4/2019

The National Statistical Institute informs users of statistical information that Issue 4 for 2019 of ‘Statistics’ Magazine is published on the NSI’s website. The issue is in Bulgarian language with summaries in Bulgarian, English and Russian and includes sections as follows:
  • Theory and methodology of the statistical surveys
  • Statistical surveys and analysis
  • The Bulgarian statistics in three centuries
  • Information, reviews, consultations

The section Theory and methodology of the statistical surveys includes the article:

  • Coherence and differences between Big Data and representative statistical surveys - Authors Dr. Bogdan Bogdanov Deputy President of the National Statistical Institute - Sofia and Dr. Galya Stateva, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The article deals with issues, problems and peculiarities of statistical surveys in official statistics and those that are carried out with Big Data. Recognized is the fact that globalization and technology in all spheres of society apply pressure in regard of the control and management of processes in the national and international aspects. For the purpose of this management, the most reliable and dynamic information is needed. The issue of sources remains open.

First of all, there are the existing differences between Big Data and sampling statistical surveys. The article discusses the general principles in this respect. The conclusion is that the principles and tasks of official statistics need to be supplemented and updated in line with changes in the national and global societal developments.

Consider are the opportunities to use statistical approaches and methods in Big Data analysis. This situation predetermines the necessity to master the information force stored in Big Data.

Following a certain sequence of style, the article presents a vision for the future of statistical surveys by the use of Big Data.

The section Statistical surveys and analysis includes the articles:

  • New requirements for official statistics in the context of the contemporary dynamics. Importance of ‘Open Data’ - Author Rosena Ivanova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

What is the role of official statistical agencies today? What challenges and challenges are there before them? How important are ‘open data’ and how do they contribute to wider access to information? These questions are the essence of this article, which aims to point out different points of view on the issues raised.

Various visions of the relatively of the new ‘open data’ concept are presented: in the national strategies for development of the statistical systems, including in the Bulgarian; in surveys of the non-governmental sector. The views of the NSI employees and the government sector are stated. The results of the annual Open Data Watch study for 2017 are of interest not only because of the complex approach in the ‘open data’ monitoring, but also because of the success of the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, occupying eighth position among the statistical agencies offering the greatest openness and accessibility of its data.

Keywords: ‘Open Data’, National Statistics Development Strategy, Open Data Watch

  • The influence of the prices of feeding products on poverty in Bulgaria in 2011 (second part) - Author Rasim Ryustem, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

Both in global as well as in regional aspect, people living in different geographic regions face different prices. These price differences can have a serious impact on incomes of individuals and households in which they live. This article discusses the impact of prices on the purchasing power of household incomes.

The second part of the article discusses the issue how the price indices built in the first part can be used. The indices are applied at the level of districts (towns / villages) and the impact of prices on poverty in the districts and municipalities of Bulgaria is being analysed. 

The final objective is to check whether price differences at district level have a direct impact on poverty in the area concerned or in the municipalities that form it.

  • State of the adult learning sector according to the main internationally comparable statistical indicators - Author Stoyan Baev, Ministry of Education and Science - Sofia

The annual education and training analyses prepared by the European Commission for each of the EU Member States provide an opportunity to look for further data for our country and to analyse some new aspects of the observed processes in the adult learning sector. The 2020 Education and Training 2020 Strategy, through the EC-defined indicators, sets out the targets set by each country to be achieved by 2020 in the following specific thematic areas:

  • Participation of the population aged 25 - 64 in formal or informal education or training - four weeks period;
  • Early- dropouts from education and training aged 18 - 24;
  • Educational structure of the population - higher education graduates from 30-34 years of age;
  • Employment of the population aged 20 - 64.

The article, based on a brief analysis of the data on the target indicators for Bulgaria under the EU strategic framework ‘Education and Training 2020’, presents the state and trends of the adult learning sector and some new aspects of the observed processes. Additional measures are proposed to the current ones in order to support efforts to overcome the lag in some specific areas of education and training and to achieve progress. Along with this, an attempt has been made to show how statistics and analyses of education can be used directly to propose policy measures and policy-making.

Finally, it is noted that so far the adult learning sector has made a substantial amount of work and that the implementation of the measures proposed to achieve more favourable values across the individual indicators can contribute to further improvement of the state of the sector for the period until 2020.

The section The Bulgarian Statistics in three centuries includes the articles:

  • Professor Anastas Y. Totev - biographical portrait - Author Prof. Stoyan Totev, Institute for Economic Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Sofia

Prof. Anastas Y. Totev, born in Sofia in 1906, is one of the most versatile, colourful and impressive figures in the statistical community in Bulgaria. He has three degrees in higher education - Agronomy, Law, and Economics. His latest degree Economics and Statistics he received during his specialization and work in the 1930s at the research institutes of economic and social sciences at Cornell University. For some time he also specialized and worked at the renowned Harvard University. In the United States, he has a degree in economics at Cornell University.

Central place in Professor Totev's research work are theoretical and methodological issues of statistics. The broad specialization he acquired proves to be extremely useful for his research and lecturing activities. The gained knowledge explains the diverse interests and the multiple topics of the subjects he taught. They provide him the opportunity to work very successfully in his research and teaching activities in a number of major fields - Statistics, Economics, Prices and Finance, Demography, Sociology, Agronomy, Law and History.

Prof. Totev's life path is separated from the historical boundaries of different socio-economic conditions of the country as opposed to his creative path. In his public life, he is not a politician, but a scrupulous scientist. His entire research and lecturing activities bear the marks of uninvolved political civic activity and professionalism. His merits for science and university work are remembered by generations of statisticians. That is why attention deserve both the accumulated wealth from his works, as well as each of his publications and manifestations, which show the maturity, objectivity and conscientiousness of a great and humble Bulgarian scientist.

Prof. Anastas Totev died in 2000 in Sofia at the age of 93.

  • The creative path of prof. dr. Petko Bozhikov in the Bulgarian Statistics - Authors Dr. Bogdan Bogdanov, Stoyan Baev, Nedyalka Bozhikova

Professor Petko Bozhikov was born on 2 September 1935 in the town of Gotse Delchev. He is one of the most prominent representatives of scientific thought in Bulgarian statistics. The majority of his professional life is connected to statistics as a state institution (now NSI). Since 1976 to his retirement in 1995 Prof. Bojikov left behind a noticeable trace in the statistical theory and practice. His articles and works trace the development of the empirical and statistical surveys in the national statistics of Bulgaria. Particularly impressive is the participation of Professor Bozhikov in the population censuses of Bulgarian statistics and the realization of a number of sociological studies. His legacy remains forever in the pages of a number of statistical publications where his name appears as author and member of working groups.

  • ‘Statistics’ magazine - a peek to history and the current day  - Author Lidia Aleksandrova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The magazine has an important role in the development of statistical thought and statistical practice as well as for the understanding of the economic and social processes in the country. Published articles and materials in the journal are from different areas of life and of high quality and cognitive significance. The attitude of the editors to the authors and readers of the magazine was highly professional and responsible, with the publication of high-quality texts throughout its long years of life. By its very nature, statistics does not allow to be used for political purposes, as theoretically it is the main direction of mathematical science and is based on the impartial recording of facts and events from the socio-economic life of the country. The ‘Statistics’ magazine in the past and today manages to fulfil its assigned tasks and respond to the needs of the time and the demands of the Bulgarian society.

Throughout all the years of its existence, numerous articles and materials from outstanding scientists and prominent authors in the field of statistics, as well as from highly qualified experts of the National Statistical Institute with professional skills and experience have been released in the magazine. The published text is only an attempt to turn back in time and reveal the strong and important aspects of the magazine - its authors - visionaries and extremely good analysts, masters of several foreign languages, lecturers not only in Bulgaria but also in other countries with an impressive general culture.

The section Information, reviews, consultations presents the information:

  • Census of cattle, poultry and bees in Bulgaria in 1905 and 1910 - Author Zdravka Bobeva, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

The geographical location and terrain and climatic conditions determine Bulgaria's position among the countries with good agricultural development opportunities. The historical overview of the country's economy invariably places agriculture and livestock breeding among the leading sectors. Therefore, from the dawn of its existence, Bulgarian statistics has paid particular attention to the census of arable land, crop species, livestock breeding, both for the needs of the population and for their use as a workforce.

The censuses of 1905 and 1910 are the fourth and fifth consecutive years in the statistics on domestic animal breeding. This makes it possible to make comparisons with the initial data, to analyse the state of the sector, and to outline trends in the development of livestock breeding in Bulgaria.

The purpose of this information is to acquaint readers with the data on a segment of Bulgarian agriculture in the early 20th century.

  • Population and housing census in Bulgaria in 1905 - Author Sonya Zlatanova, National Statistical Institute - Sofia

On December 31, 1905, the fifth census of the population and the fourth census of the housing fund in the history of Bulgaria began.

According to the Law on the General Population Census, buildings and livestock in the Bulgarian Principality of December 15, 1897, the census should be carried out every five years. The first preparatory measure prior to the census is the numbering of buildings. It was necessary to have the buildings numbered in advance in each populated place, re-numbered where none existed, or to check, repair or supplement the existing one. All census data for the population, buildings and livestock are collected and entered only in the form (enumerating form) prepared by the Directorate of Statistics, which have been sent to the municipal authorities. At the same time, the data collected during the census serve to allocate the population by gender, age, nationality, mother tongue, nationality, religion, literacy, natural handicaps and by households. Special county and county census commissions are taking care for the proper conduct of the census, which distribute the municipalities into census districts and determine the required number of census agents. The census on 31 December 1905 was conducted in 1 893 municipalities of the Principality by 20 834 agent-enumerators, of which 5 924 were in the cities and 14 910 in the villages. An average of 194 inhabitants were enumerated by one agent-enumerator, of which 133 are urban enumerators and 218 are rural enumerators. The processing of the data collected during the census is carried out in the Directorate of Statistics.

Publications from the census of population and housing fund in 1905 have been digitized and are freely available at the NSI's digital library. The digital collection contains 2 884 pages of statistical information.